REFERATUA.ORG.UA — База українських рефератів




Тема: " Джордж Вашингтон "




  • Name

  • Physical Description

  • Personality

  • Ancestors

  • Father

  • Mother

  • Siblings

  • Collateral relatives

  • Children

  • Birth

  • Childhood

  • Education

  • Religion

  • Recreation

  • Early romance

  • Betsy Fauntleroy

  • Mary Philipse

  • Sally Fairfax

  • Marriage

  • Military Service

  • Career before the presidency

  • French and Indian War, 1754 – 1763

  • Member of House of Burgesses (1759 – 1774)

  • Delegate to Continental Congress (1774 – 1775)

  • Commander of Chief of Continental Army during Revolution (1775 – 1783)

  • President of Constitutional Convention, 1787

  • Election as President, First Term, 1789

  • Election as President, Second Term, 1792





  • Secretary state:

  • Secretary of the treasury

  • Secretary of war

  • Attorney General


  • Presidents

  • Indian Affairs

  • Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793

  • Whiskey Rebellion, 1794

  • Jay's. Treaty, 1795

  • Pinckney's Treaty, 1795

  • Farewell Address, 1796

  • Sates Admitted to the Union

  • Constitutional Amendments Ratified


  • Ranking in 1962 historians poll

  • Retirement

  • Death

  • Washington's praise (speech)

  • Washington's criticized (speech)

  • Washington's quote(s) (speech)

    NAME: George Washington. He was probably named after George Eskridge, a lawyer in whose charge Washington's mother had been left when she was orphaned.

    PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: Washington was a large, powerful man—about 6 feet 2 inches tall, 175 pounds in his prime, up to more than 200 pounds in later years. Erect in bearing, muscular, broad shouldered, he had large hands and feet (size 13 shoes), a long face with high cheekbones, a large straight nose, determined chin, blue-gray eyes beneath heavy brows and dark brown hair, which on formal occasions he powdered and tied in a queue. His fair complexion bore the marks of smallpox he contracted as a young man. He lost his teeth, probably to gum disease, and wore dentures. According to Dr. Reidar Sognnaes, former dean of the University of California at Los Angeles School of Dentistry, who has made a detailed study of Washington's bridgework, he was fitted with numerous sets of dentures, fashioned variously from lead, ivory, and the teeth of humans, cows, and other animals, but not from wood, as was popularly believed. Moreover, he was not completely toothless. Upon his inauguration as president, Washington had one of his own teeth left to work alongside the dentures. He began wearing reading glasses during the Revolution. He dressed fashionably.

    PERSONALITY: A man of quiet strength, he took few friends into complete confidence. His critics mistook his dignified reserve for pomposity. Life for Washington was a serious mission, a job to be tackled soberly, unremittingly. He had little time for humor. Although basically good-natured, he wrestled with his temper and sometimes lost. He was a poor speaker and could become utterly inarticulate without a prepared text. He preferred to express himself on paper. Still, when he did speak, he was candid, direct, and looked people squarely in the eye. Biographer Douglas Southall Freeman conceded that Washington's "ambition for wealth made him acquisitive and sometimes contentious." Even after Washington had established himself, Freeman pointed out, "he would insist upon the exact payment of every farthing due him" and was determined "to get everything that he honestly could." Yet neither his ambition to succeed nor his acquisitive nature ever threatened his basic integrity.

    ANCESTORS: Through his paternal grandmother, Mildred Warner Washington, he descended from King Edward III (1312-1377) of England. His great-great-grandfather the Reverend Lawrence Washington (c. 1602-1653) served as rector of All Saints, Purleigh Parish, Essex, England, but was fired when certain Puritan members accused him of being a "common frequenter of Alehouses, not only himself sitting daily tippling there, but also encouraging others in that beastly vice." His great-grandfather John Washington sailed to America about 1656, intending to remain just long enough to take on a load of tobacco. But shortly after pushing off on the return trip, his ketch sank. Thus John remained in Virginia, where he met and married Anne Pope, the president's great-grandmother.

    FATHER: Augustine Washington (16947-1743), planter. Known to friends as Gus, he spent much of his time acquiring and overseeing some 10,000 acres of land in the Potomac region, running an iron foundry, and tending to business affairs in England. It was upon returning from one of these business trips in 1730 that he discovered that his wife, Jane Butler Washington, had died in his absence. On March 6, 1731, he married Mary Ball, who gave birth to George Washington 11 months later. Augustine Washington died when George was 11 years old. > Because business had kept Mr. Washington away from home so much, George remembered him only vaguely as a tall, fair, kind man.

    MOTHER: Mary Ball Washington (c. 1709-1789). Fatherless at 3 and orphaned at 12, she was placed, in accordance with the terms of her mother's will, under the guardianship of George Eskridge, a lawyer. Washington's relationship with his mother was forever strained. Although she was by no means poor, she regularly asked for and received money and goods from George. Still she complained, often to outsiders, that she was destitute and neglected by her children, much to George's embarrassment. In 1755, while her son was away serving his king in the French and Indian War, stoically suffering the hardships of camp life, she wrote to him asking for more butter and a new house servant. Animosity between mother and son persisted until her death from cancer in the first year of his presidency.

    SIBLINGS: By his father's first marriage, George Washington had two half brothers to live to maturity—Lawrence Washington, surrogate father to George after the death of their father, and Augustine "Austin" Washington. He also had three brothers and one sister to live to maturity—Mrs. Betty Lewis; Samuel Washington; John Augustine "Jack" Washington, father of Supreme Court Justice Bushrod Washington; and Charles Washington, founder